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Malaria ranks among the major health and developmental challenges facing some of the poorest countries in tropical and sub-tropical regions across the globe. We determined urinary abnormalities and its relationship with parasite density in children ≤12 years with Plasmodium falciparum infection. From December 2013 to March 2014, we randomly recruited 116 participants comprising 58 malaria patients (cases) and 58 healthy controls from the Comboni Mission and the Sogakope District Hospitals both in the South Tongu district. Blood was collected for the estimation of hemoglobin and total white blood cells; thick and thin blood films were used for the determination of malaria parasite density. Urine was collected for the measurement of the various biochemical components using the automated urine analyzer. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Urine protein (P < 0.001), blood (P < 0.001), bilirubin (P < 0.001), urobilinogen (P < 0.001), and ketones (P = 0.001) were significantly higher in individuals with P. falciparum infection than in healthy controls. Proteinuria (P = 0.247; r = 0.155), hematuria (P = 0.142; r = 0.195), bilirubinuria (P = 0.001; r = 0.438), urobilinogenuria (P = 0.876; r = 0.021), and ketonuria (P = 0.136; r = 0.198) were positively correlated with malaria parasite density; however, only bilirubinuria was significantly higher at higher parasitemia. Malaria has a significant effect on the chemical composition of urine with bilirubin positively correlated with parasite density. Dipstick urinalysis can be used together with light microscopy in resource-limited malaria-endemic areas to accurately diagnose falciparum malaria infection.


Richard K D Ephraim, Worlanyo Tashie, Hope Agbodzakey, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Prince Adoba, Patrick Adu, Joyce Ampong. Dipstick urinalysis findings in children with Plasmodium falciparum in the South Tongu District: A case-control study. Nigerian medical journal : journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. 2015 Jul-Aug;56(4):292-6

PMID: 26759517

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